# Driving calculator 2.0

• April 4, 2011
• News

We recently added the 2011 model year cars to our carbon footprint calculator, and it now includes all-electric vehicles. As this is a first, this post is dedicated to the calculation details because they aren’t as straightforward as a gasoline or diesel car.

First, for comparison: a traditional car’s footprint is calculated by multiplying the quantity of fuel used in a year by an “emissions factor,” the pounds of CO2 emitted by combustion of one gallon of that fuel. To arrive at annual fuel consumption, the TerraPass calculator multiplies the US EPA’s combined City – Highway miles per gallon figure for your car by the number of miles you tell us you’ll drive.

We keep this calculation simple. We don’t attempt to count the full life-cycle emissions of the fuel, which would include factors for losses during extraction, refining, and transportation from the oil reserves to your car. We don’t account for incomplete combustion in your engine or fugitive emissions from your tank into the air. We don’t account for your driving habits or routes, which materially affect your miles per gallon. We keep it simple.

Enter cars which are fueled at least in part, by grid electricity.

Vehicles which plug-in introduce at least two complications to the footprint calculation. First and most obviously, is the CO2 emissions factor. For electricity, this factor depends on the fuel used to run the power plant. Regions with a heavy dose of coal-fired power have a much higher CO2 emissions factor than regions which rely on natural gas or hydro power. We have chosen to use the US national average grid emissions factor, as reported by the US EPA’s eGRID database. You can see how your region compares with the national average on this one-pager.

Second, how much electricity does the car require? For motor vehicle labelling purposes, the EPA decided to compare alternative fuels to gasoline so that car buyers can compare efficiency and costs across various fuel types. Using standard energy conversion factors, the heat energy available in a gallon of gasoline equals the heat energy available in about 33.7 kilowatt-hours of electricity. To get a familiar “miles per gallon” figure, the EPA drives plug-in cars through its standardized cycle and measures the energy used. They convert the measured kwh to gallons using the 33.7 multiplier and arrive at a “miles per gallon-equivalent” figure.

So the TerraPass calculator multiplies the “mpg-e” figure by the national average electricity CO2 emissions factor, and then multiplies again by the number of miles you tell us you’ll drive. As with liquid-fuelled cars, we don’t take into account the full life-cycle emissions of the electricity; we don’t count electricity transmission line losses, the life-cycle of the power plant fuel, or other upstream factors.

The only catch to our new electric vehicle calculations is that you’ll need to enter your mpg-e directly into the calculator. This is due to the structure of the underlying US EPA vehicle database, which doesn’t yet include electric vehicles.

What about plug-in hybrids, you ask? Blog post on that, more complicated, topic will follow.

### Author Bio

#### erin

1. - April 6, 2011

Wow, 33.7 kilowatt hours sounds like a lot of electricity. Equals ONE gallon of gasoline. So we can see one reason why it’s been hard to wean ourselves off of gasoline – burning that fiendish brew produces lots of bang per gallon. It’s not until you factor in the environmental and political damage that using gasoline entails, that the urgency of moving beyond its use becomes clear. A rock and a hard place. A German friend told me that nothing can grow within a certain radius of a wind turbine (at least with the present designs there) – because the vibration kills every thing living in the soil around it. More challenges! Come on, Mankind! Show us what you can do!

2. - April 6, 2011

Was playing with the calculator. Discovered that 2010 Toyota Prius in calculator gets 17mpg city / 25mpg highway. Used 2009 Prius to get more accurate values. Of course y’all will fix that soon.

3. - April 6, 2011

The calculator says my ’98 Honda Civic gets 28/33 mpg. My hypermiling driving gets 50 mpg freeway. The user should be able to enter adjusted mileage if better than reported.

4. - April 6, 2011

I didn’t see the Nissan Leaf in the drop down menu.

5. - April 7, 2011

Chuck, thanks for bringing that to our attention! Should be all fixed now.

6. - April 7, 2011

A few clarifications on the calc (and we’ll make sure to put these in the blog post):
1. Entering adjusted mileage (for you hypermiling drivers out there). If you’re on the car calculator page with the drop-down menu of the cars, look above where it says:
Can’t find your car or use an alternative fuel? Know your actual MPG?